I can see you are starving for knowledge In France, the backend is mainly PHP so I would recommand to learn Symfony or Laravel.
Drop the Clojure, Ocaml, Elixir, Rust and Haskell for now as it is a niche. And sorry, Elm as well They are definitely interesting but as you said, it is mainly for senior or at least for experienced developper.
You can still learn from your company and collegue while learning/perfecting your knowledge in Elm. There are a lot of developper communities in the main cities. For instance, in Bordeaux, there is Okiwi. I don’t know where you are but I’m sure you can find one association that will welcome you
The goal of that is to talk about jobs and language opportunities where you are. The other goal may be to start teaching Elm. Organize a coding dojo to show to the world that Elm exists. That would be awesome and will help you build your network!
For myself, I did the opposite : my job showed me Elm and now, I am in love and then I started to think about “teaching”
Anyway. About the job, you can find one but maybe not first the stack you want. But it is still a job and you can still learn from it. A lot of jobs that starts to be really interesting requires at least 2 or 5 years of working experience, whatever it was. It’s stupid. I know but it is the truth. After this period and by getting closer to other dev, you may find you way to the stack you want
Cheers, bud, and good luck