Solving dependencies of 11079 elm packages in less than 1s

Dependency solvers are algorithms taking as input the direct dependencies of an app or a package and computing all versions of all packages that will be necessary for the code to run (including indirect dependencies).

For quite some time now I’ve been working on implementations of a state of the art dependency solver called PubGrub, originally created by Natalie Weizenbaum for the Dart programming language. I used elm to prototype my first implementation of PubGrub, which resulted in elm-pubgrub, that I presented here 4 months ago. Beware that there is actually a bug in that implementation that I’ve not fixed yet (sorry).

But I have more plans for it, and to that end, I’ve reimplemented PubGrub in Rust this time! With the help of Jacob and Alex, we have improved everything from my initial draft and are working on making it a better alternative to the solver embedded in Cargo, Rust package manager.

Few days ago, I created an index, a registry of all 11079 published elm package versions (to date) between elm 0.14.0 and elm 0.19.1 with their direct dependencies, all in one file. And today, I’m proud to say that we can solve dependencies of all those 11079 package versions with pubgrub in less than 1 second! (0.842s with an i7-10750H) I’m now very confident that it will be a central piece for another project of mine, with hopefully more exciting news before Christmas!

Doing that analysis of elm packages also brought a lot of insight and some surprises. I’ll start with some statistics, followed by surprises (invalid packages in the elm registry).

Statistics on elm packages

It’s always fun to explore data and to share some insight on that data. So for this, I’ve generated CSV file containing the following fields per package version: id, author, package, version, elm-version, license, direct_dep_count, total_dep_count. Once you plug that data into a tool like vega data voyager, you can start exploring it and look for interesting patterns.

Here are some interesting plots, we can start with the number of package versions published per version of elm.


Now the most prolific authors, sorted by number of package versions published.

Here are the different licenses used in elm packages.


It is also interesting to note that most packages have a low count of direct and indirect dependencies.

direct-deps total-deps


Bad surprises

While solving dependencies for all elm packages, I was surprised to see that some packages could not be solved. So I did an analysis of all those packages and sorted the failures in different categories as follows.

Packages depending on non-existing packages

Some packages mentionned in dependencies do not exist in the elm registry. I suppose they may have existed at some point and were removed for some reason. As a consequence, there are a number of existing packages in the registry depending on them which can thus not be compiled anymore. Many of them depended on maxsnew/io, not existing anymore. Those are all elm 0.15 packages:

  • sporto/erl from 1.0.0 to 3.1.0
  • jessitron/elm-param-parsin 1.0.0
  • nphollon/collisions 1.0.0 and 1.0.1
  • avh4/elm-spec 1.0.0
  • avh4/elm-diff until 1.0.5
  • chendrix/elm-matrix from 2.0.1 to 3.0.0
  • aluuu/elm-check-io
  • truqu/elm-base64 1.0.0

Some depended on Dandandan/easing, these are elm 0.15 and elm 0.16 packages

  • KtorZ/elm-notification (elm 0.16)
  • etaque/elm-transit-style 1.0.0 and 1.0.1 (elm 0.16)
  • etaque/elm-transit 4.0.1 (elm 0.16)
  • mgold/elm-animation 1.0.0 and 1.0.1 (elm 0.15)

Also all packages from spisemisu do not appear to exist anymore in the packages registry. As a consequence, dependencies of the following elm 0.18 packages cannot be solved.

  • nathanjohnson320/ecurve depends on spisemisu/elm-bytes
  • ktonon/elm-hmac depends on spisemisu/elm-bytes
  • arowM/elm-embedded-gist 1.0.4 depends on spisemisu/elm-sha
  • billstclair/elm-crypto-string until 2.1.0 depend on spisemisu/elm-utf8

Many other packages (mostly elm 0.18) depend on non-existing ones:

  • imeckler/iterator until 1.1.1 (elm 0.14) depends on uehaj/intrange which does not exist.
  • sindikat/elm-matrix 1.1.0 and 1.2.0 (elm 0.15) depend on sindikat/elm-array-experimental which does not exist.
  • rgrempel/elm-route-url until 1.0.4 (elm 0.15) depends on TheSeamau5/elm-history which does not exist.
  • krisajenkins/elm-exts from 10.0.0 to 10.2.5 (elm 0.15) depends on jterbraak/dateop which does not exist.
  • javcasas/elm-decimal 1.0.0 (elm 0.16) depends on javcasas/elm-integer < 2.0.0 which does not exist.
  • Warry/elmi-decoder depends on Warry/ascii-table which does not exist (warry/ascii-table exists though)
  • cmditch/mel-bew3 depends on Warry/ascii-table which does not exist.
  • cmditch/elm-ethereum 1.0.0 and 1.0.1 depend on Warry/ascii-table which does not exist.
  • ktonon/elm-serverless-cors 1.0.0 and 1.0.1 indirectly depend on ktonon/url-parser which does not exist
  • ktonon/elm-serverless 3.0.0 to 3.0.2 depend on ktonon/url-parser which does not exist.
  • danielnarey/elm-form-capture depends on danielnarey/elm-html-tree which does not exist
  • surprisetalk/elm-bulma from 3.0.0 to 6.0.2 depend on danielnarey/elm-bulma-classes which does not exist
  • Chadtech/ctpaint-keys from 5.0.0 to 6.0.9 depend on Chadtech/keyboard-extra-browser which does not exist
  • jfmengels/elm-lint 1.0.0 depends on jfmengels/elm-ast which does not exist.
  • the-sett/ai-search 3.1.1 depends on tsfoster/elm-heap which does not exist (TSFoster/elm-heap exists though).
  • the-sett/svg-text-fonts 1.0.0 and 2.0.0 depend on the-sett/elm-multi-dict which does not exist.
  • allo-media/koivu from 4.0.0 to 4.1.1 depend allo-media/canopy 3.1.0 <= v < 4.0.0 which does not exist (only 1.0.0 exist).

Packages depending on two incompatible versions of elm

Some packages depend indirectly on an older version of elm, due to a dependency to an old version of elm-lang/core. I suspect those are errors happening at the transition between two elm versions.

  • bakkemo/elm-collision 1.0.0 is an elm 0.15 package depending on elm-lang/core 1.0.0 <= v < 2.0.0 which is an elm 0.14 package.
  • eeue56/elm-flat-matrix from 2.0.2 to 2.0.4 are elm 0.16 packages depending on elm-lang/core 2.1.0 which is an elm 0.15 package.
  • jvoigtlaender/elm-warshall 1.0.0 depends on eeue56/elm-flat-matrix 2.0.4 which itself is not solvable.
  • mbr/elm-mouse-events 1.0.3 is an elm 0.18 package depending on elm-lang/core 4.0.5 (elm 0.17)

And some packages are back from the future! They indirectly depend on a future version of elm. Impossible you might say! The relativity is broken! Well, not exactly. Some are elm transitions issues I guess, but one is due to packages not existing anymore. This is the one I prefer :slight_smile:

  • EngageSoftware/elm-dnn-http 1.0.0 is an elm 0.18 package depending on EngageSoftware/elm-dnn-localization which is an elm 0.19 package. (ps elm-dnn-localization starts at version 1.0.2 so maybe previous versions were elm 0.18 packages, but they don’t exist anymore in the package registry)
  • garetht/elm-dynamic-style 1.0.1 is an elm 0.15 package depending on elm-lang/core 3.0.0 (elm 0.16)
  • sgraf812/elm-intdict 1.4.0 and 1.4.1 are elm 0.15 packages depending on elm-lang/core 3.0.0 which is an elm 0.16 package.
  • w0rm/elm-slice-show 3.0.0 is an elm 0.16 package depending on elm-lang/navigation 1.0.0 which is an elm 0.17 package.
  • vito/elm-ansi 8.0.0 is an elm 0.16 package depending on elm-lang/html 1.0.0 <= v < 2.0.0 which is an elm 0.17 package.
  • lattenwald/elm-base64 1.0.2 and 1.0.3 are elm 0.17 packages depending on elm-lang/core 5.0.0 <= v < 6.0.0 which is for elm 0.18.
  • nedSaf/elm-bootstrap-grip 1.0.1 and 1.0.2 are elm 0.17 packages depending on elm-lang/core 5.1.1 (elm 0.18)

Indirect dependencies on two incompatible versions of the same package

Very similar than with elm itself, but this time regarding regular published packages. Some packages depend on other packages in a way that both depend on two incompatible ranges of versions of a same third packages.

  • fresheyeball/elm-check-runner 1.0.0 depends on NoRedInk/elm-check 2.0.0 <= v < 3.0.0 but both depend on incompatible versions of elm-lang/core.
  • heyLu/elm-format-date 1.0.0 depends on deadfoxygrandpa/elm-test 1.0.2 <= v < 2.0.0 but both depend on incompatible versions of elm-lang/core.
  • nphollon/collision 1.0.0 depends on elm-community/elm-list-extra 2.0.0 and both have incompatible dependencies on elm-lang/core.
  • enetsee/facet-plot-alpha from 2.0.1 to 2.0.3 depends on enetsee/facet-scenegraph-alpha and both have incompatible dependencies on folkertdev/svg-path-lowlevel.
  • enetsee/facet-render-svg-alpha until 1.0.3 depends on folkertdev/one-true-path-experiment 3.0.2 and both depend on incompatible versions of folkertdev/svg-path-lowlevel.
  • lucamug/elm-style-framework 5.0.1 depends on lucamug/elm-styleguide-generator 3.0.0 <= v < 4.0.0 but both depend on incompatible versions of mdgriffith/stylish-elephants.
  • jonathanfishbein1/elm-comment 5.0.3 depends on lucamug/elm-style-framework 6.0.0 and both have incompatible dependencies to mdgriffith/stylish-elephants.
  • primait/elm-form 11.0.0 and 12.0.0 depend on Leonti/elm-material-datepicker and both depend on incompatible versions of rluiten/elm-date-extra.
  • Natim/elm-workalendar 1.0.0 and 1.0.1 are depending on akheron/elm-easter and both have incompatible dependencies to justinmimbs/elm-date-extra.
  • drathier/elm-graph-test until 1.0.2 depends on elm-community/elm-test 3.1.0 but both depend on incompatible versions of mgold/elm-random-pcg so it is an impossible transitive dependency.
  • circuithub/elm-bootstrap-html 4.0.1 and 4.0.2 indirectly depend on two incompatible versions of evancz/elm-html

Indirect dependency on an older version of itself

I’m not sure how this one was not caught by the compiler.

  • jonathanfishbein1/complex-numbers 5.0.0 depends on jonathanfishbein1/elm-field 3.0.0 <= v < 4.0.0 which depends on jonathanfishbein1/complex-numbers 4.1.0 <= v < 5.0.0 so there is an impossible cycle.

Packages with mistakes in dependencies

Those are package author mistakes and should have been caught at package publication.

  • eskimoblood/elm-wallpaper 2.1.4 depends on elm version "0.17.0 <= v < 0.17.0".
  • krisajenkins/elm-dialog until 1.0.2 depends on laszlopandy/elm-console 1.1.1 <= v < 1.1.1.
  • showel/elm-data-util 1.0.0 has a duplicate "elm-version" field, one with the package syntax "0.19.0 <= v < 0.20.0" and one with the application syntax "0.19.0". This made the deserializer of PubGrub solver fail.
  • alex-tan/loadable 1.0.0 has a duplicate "elm-version" field, one with the package syntax "0.19.0 <= v < 0.20.0" and one with the application syntax "0.19.0". This made the deserializer of PubGrub solver fail.

What should we do about it?

Most problematic packages are related to old versions of elm, but not all (the last two are 0.19 packages with a syntax issue in their elm.json). Maybe all problematic packages should be removed from the package registry to prevent projects from depending on them since it is still possible to create elm 0.18 projects. What do you think? (Ultimately it’s Evan’s decision anyway).


I agree that problematic packages should be removed from the registry and I also believe that published packages shouldn’t be allowed to be removed from the registry - we could definitely learn from npm’s past mistake here, right?

Also - amazing job on this research! Super insightful.


Yes. For longer term stability and reproducability of older builds, the package repo would need to download the packages, rather than relying on GitHub.

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Some information to clarify a bit some points that may be blurry for people that have not interacted with the package registry yet.

  • The package registry does store the elm.json of every published package, but relies on GitHub to download the code.
  • In this study, I’ve never interacted with GitHub since the package website provides an API to request data about available packages and to retrieve the elm.json in order to get a package dependencies.

I’m also not questioning the ability to remove a package from the registry. Some packages may contain heinous or illegal content and so ability to remove packages from the package registry is necessary anyway. This is orthogonal to the ability to download the code of the package, which is another issue for another discussion.

The current issue is that packages can be removed, but the package registry API does not make that assumption. For example, one end point is http://.../since/N where N is the number of packages that you have already downloaded. So if you have cached already 42 packages, and you want to know what are the new packages since last time, you could go to the end point .../since/42. But N acts as a counter, so if one of those 42 packages was removed, the package at place 42 is shifted to place 41 and now you will never know it exists since it does not appear in the response of since/42 (unless you re-download the complete list of packages, which is another endpoint).

Tools like elm-json for example use the .../since/N API endpoint to update its cache of packages. Maybe a new endpoint like between/N1/N2 could enable verification that no package was removed by verifying what is present at the frontier of package N.

Anyway, that is mostly food for thought, but might interest @evancz for the point of view of people making tooling based on that API.

EDIT: just realizing that asking for ../since/N-1 might be enough to make sure that no package was removed ^^.


That is interesting. I assumed my the-sett/elm-multi-dict is broken for 0.18, because I re-tagged it to 1.0.0 when I moved it up to 0.19. But the reason I re-tagged it, is that when I ran elm publish it said it was a new package, and so should have the version 1.0.0. It was available in 0.18, but for some reason was deleted or othewsise broken in the package registry during the 0.19 upgrade.

I was thinking, these errors exist because people broke stuff in GitHub. Now I am thinking, these kinds of errors I experienced moving from 0.18 to 0.19 may have been a little more widespread. Perhaps the elm-package.json was malformed and there was a tidy up?


I’m curious about removing packages though - if a package is malicious should people be able to flag it and let users know? Or remove it (breaking builds with no prior warnings)? The former would at least let users plan a way to remove the dependency without breaking their apps - it would also work for packages that were just removed for any other reason and are not security traps (elm packages are quite safe by definition, unlike npm packages)

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Maybe, I honestly don’t know. I remember also that some packages had issues with their license that was not formatted in SPDX at one transition. I don’t remember which transition it was.