Just for clarity, React wasn’t anywhere near first. The early days of web frameworks includes ones like ExtJS and MooTools, both around 2006. Then Angular and Ember showed up around 2010. React and Elm both showed up around 2012/2013. Vue and Svelte have been around for a few years now. There have also been many others in between, including jQuery, Backbone, Dojo, and many more.
Also, while Svelte looks like JS, it is technically a language and not just a framework.
If you’re looking for something Elm like structurally, React is the closest, and actually shares a similar early life as React started as a SML and then OCaml library before settling in JS. Redux, if you used it for state management, also attributes part of its design to Elm.
I can’t speak for France, but in the US React, Vue, and Angular are by for the most popular right now. I think it’d be worth it to learn 1 of them. If you were to find yourself at a company that’s interested in Elm there’s probably a chance that they have legacy code in some framework and it could be advantageous to be able to work on that and be able to read it if it needs porting to Elm.